Why Need Water Treatment Equipment
Water is needed for drinking, cooking, cleaning, bathing, irrigating crops and a variety of other tasks, so it is important to human life. The water sources used for supplying water were not always clean however, and treating drinking water to improve smell, taste, clarity, or to remove disease-causing pathogens has occurred in one form or another throughout recorded history.
Water from surface sources is often contaminated by microbes; whereas groundwater is normally safer, but even groundwater can be contaminated by harmful chemicals from human activities or from the natural environment.


Water Treatment Processe Objectives
1. To confer and preserve the inherent physical, chemical and biological qualities of water of different origins which make it suitable for specific uses, such as water for drinking and for use in productive processes;
2. To permit wastewater treatment that will protect the public from health risks without causing any damage to the environment;
3. To confer and preserve those characteristics of water in its natural environment which are necessary for the conservation and development of fish and aquatic vegetation, and for provision of drinking water for cattle and wild animals or for recreational and aesthetic purpose.


Water Treatment Technology
1. Coagulation and Flocculation
Coagulation and flocculation are often the first steps in water treatment. Chemicals with a positive charge are added to the water. The positive charge of these chemicals neutralizes the negative charge of dirt and other dissolved particles in the water. When this occurs, the particles bind with the chemicals and form larger particles, called floc.
2. Sedimentation
During sedimentation, floc settles to the bottom of the water supply, due to its weight. This settling process is called sedimentation.
3. Filtration
Once the floc has settled to the bottom of the water supply, the clear water on top will pass through filters of varying compositions (sand, gravel, and charcoal) and pore sizes, in order to remove dissolved particles, such as dust, parasites, bacteria, viruses, and chemicals.

4. Disinfection
After the water has been filtered, a disinfectant (for example, chlorine, chloramine) is added in order to kill any remaining parasites, bacteria, and viruses.
Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water that enters the treatment plant. Typically, surface water requires more treatment and filtration than ground water because lakes, rivers, and streams contain more sediment and pollutants and are more likely to be contaminated than ground water.


Water Pretreatment Process
Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. Water purification is the removal of contaminants from untreated water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for human consumption. Substances that are removed during the process of drinking water treatment include suspended solids, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, minerals such as iron, manganese and sulphur, and other chemical pollutants such as fertilizers. Common water pretreatment equipments include quartz sand filter, water purifier and sodium ion exchanger etc.

Quartz sand filter use quartz sand as filter medium. Under certain pressure, it filters high-turbidity water through fixed amount granular quartz sand, thus can effectively remove suspended solids, organic matter, colloid particles, microorganism, chlorine and partial heavy metal ion etc. Finally it reduces the water turbidity and purifies water quality. Common filter materials include quartz sand, activated carbon, anthracite and manganese sand etc. Ions are split into
two groups. The cations such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, hydrogen, iron, etc. have a net positive charge;

the anions such as bicarbonate, carbonate, hydroxide, chloride, sulphate, etc. have a net negative charge. In all water supplies, the total amount of cations must be equal to the total amount of anions after both are mathematically converted to a common base. The raw water contains the ion that is to be removed by ion exchange. When this unwanted ion comes into contact with the regenerated exchanger during its service run, it displaces the ion that was attached to the resin and takes its place on the resin. When hard water is passed through a bed of sodium ion exchanger, the calcium and magnesium are taken up and held by the ion exchanger which simultaneously gives up an equivalent amount of sodium in exchange for them.




Sterilization System
Sterilization can be defined as any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. Sterilization principle: within certain temperature range, the lower the temperature, the slower the bacterial reproduces; the higher the temperature, the faster the bacterial reproduces. If the temperature is too high, the bacterial will die. Different bacterial has different optimum growth temperature, heat-resistant ability and cold tolerance. The sterilizer is just use the feature of causative agent — they don’t have great heat-resistant ability, to destroy them with suitable temperature and heat-retaining time.To be effective, sterilization requires time, contact, temperature and with steam sterilization, high pressure. The effectiveness of any method of sterilization is also dependent upon four other factors: the type of microorganism present, the number of microorganisms present, the amount and type of organic material that protects the microorganisms and the number of cracks and crevices on an instrument that might harbor microorganisms.


Ultraviolet Sterilization
Ultraviolet (UV) is a means of killing or rendering harmless microorganisms in a dedicated environment. These microorganisms can range from bacteria and viruses to algae and protozoa. UV disinfection is used in air and water purification, sewage treatment, protection of food and beverages, and many other disinfection and sterilization applications. A major advantage of UV treatment is that it is considered safer and more reliable for disinfection of water than chemical alternatives, while the level of disinfection is much higher. UV treatment systems are also extremely cost efficient and require less space than alternative disinfection systems.Ultraviolet light is one energy region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which lies between the x-ray region and the visible region.



Wavelength of visible light ranges between 400 and 700 nanometers (nm). UV itself lies in the ranges of 200 nm to 390 nm. Optimal UV germicidal action occurs at 254 nm. UV Sterilization works on the principle that DNA and proteins absorb UV radiation (typically around 254 nm), this causes the bacterial DNA to denature and renders them inactive.
Ultraviolet sterilization can be used in laboratories, bottled water plants, wineries, cisterns, dairies, farms, spas, canneries, bakeries, fish hatcheries and petro chemicals etc.

CIP Cleaning System
CIP stands for “cleaning-in-place”. A good CIP system includes: pre- and post rinse cycles. The pre-rinse cycle would be with clear, temperate water. This may be in three or more bursts. The pre-rinse flushes excess soils to drain. The alkaline or caustic step in CIP is the only step at temperature. The post rinse may also be in bursts, in which case acid would be injected in the last burst of the post rinse. The purpose of the post rinse is to tie up any carryover alkalinity, treat minerals in the water, and allow free-rinsing. Common CIP cleaning machines are split type CIP cleaning series, integral type CIP cleaning series and block type CIP cleaning series.

The majority of CIP cleaning is done in dairy plants, fluid milk plants, ice cream plants and condensing operations. Much of the technology developed for this industry has been applied very successfully to other industries such as the soft drink, food and pharmaceutical industries. What is important in CIP cleaning process? It is monitoring the time, temperature, pressure, concentration and hydraulics of the system. Of utmost importance is to assure the effectiveness of CIP by observation.